A Model for Integrating Islamic Innovative Heritage into the Higher Education Curriculum

Authors:
Dr. Tayeb Brahimi
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Renad BaAbdallah
Architecture Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:
The present paper explores the integration of Islamic Innovative Heritage into the higher education curriculum with a case study of first year Mathematic course at Effat University. The structure of the integrated curriculum emphasizes on Effat University IQRA core values which were adopted as the philosophy of education by the University. Based on IQRA core values, the main goal of the present work is to develop an educational model integrating Islamic Innovative Heritage into mathematics’ curriculum by building a teacher’s pack that provides support material along with a range of resources for use in Mathematic courses. The main challenge was to shed a new light on a forgotten period of history and uncover the 1000 years (600-1600) hidden from educational syllabi, a time where Muslims scientists and engineers excelled in Mathematics, Medicine, Architecture, Astronomy, Chemistry, Cartography, etc. As a result, faculty members opened a new window on the history of science and engineering and raised students’ awareness of their shared scientific heritage, in particular during the golden ages of Muslim civilization, and at the same time clarifying the Muslim contributions in sciences which has been denied on science timelines under the name of dark ages. The major conclusions drawn from this study shows that more than 80% of math students supported enriching the university courses with material relevant to Muslim contributions in sciences. However, during this study we noticed that none of the Innovative Heritage courses were found as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) even at the famous MOOC provider Coursera. The only course found, which is partially related to Muslim heritage, is being set by RWAQ, a Saudi MOOCs provider, entitled “Introduction to the History of Andalusia, Paradise Lost”. We believe that introducing Islamic Innovative Heritage as a MOOC would be of great interest to all.

Exploring the effectiveness of integrating Muslim heritage content in a Biology course syllabus: a pilot study

Authors:
El Itani, N., Ghieh, S., Alghamdi, N.
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:
This pilot study intends to explore the effectiveness of enriching an introductory general Biology course with Muslim heritage content at a university in Jeddah, KSA. After piloting the study for three consecutive academic semesters, the researchers used a mixed methods approach to address the purpose of the study. The population of interest for this exploration consisted of all students taking General Biology I course during the three semesters; the population also included all the lecturers teaching this subject. To collect data, the researchers examined the students’ grades as a direct indicator of achievement. They also examined the students’ perceptions and the lecturers’ feedback towards this project. The results significantly indicate that integrating Muslim heritage content in a general Biology course is effective.

Project Based Course in Electrical Engineering Program Using Syllabus Enriched By Muslim Heritage

Authors:
EMohamed Ghazy Shehata, Professor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:
Project-based learning is a powerful method for engineering education if the curriculum is well designed to achieve the learning outcomes by proper usage of the digital technology available today. The Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) program in Effat University implemented this idea in one pilot course offered in its curriculum. The pilot course was an elective whose contents are related to Mechatronics. The lecturer and the students chose the syllabus of the course to cover major devices invented by Muslim scientists in the Golden era. The lecturer and the students chose the syllabus of the course to cover major devices, mechanical and hydraulical, invented by Muslim scientists in the Golden era. The students are not familiar with kinds of devices since they are electrical engineering students. Therefore, the students had to search and investigate the fundamental and technical basis that would help them to understand the operation and the design of their projects before they execute them. Thus, the students gained knowledge in different areas, improved their self-learning skills, and gained an appreciation for the work done by Muslim Scientists. The paper shows the detailed syllabus, activities, resources, and assignments of the pilot course.

Integrating Muslim Heritage in Foundation in Physics Course (PHYS 112 Module)

Authors:
EMohamed Ghazy Shehata, Professor
Salih, A., MSc and Gandour, A., PhD
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:
A1000 years are missing in Physics Textbooks from the History of Science point of view. Being instructors of Physics, focus had always been, while teaching the material, to make sure that the names of Aristotle, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, etc. were mentioned in class. On joining the Muslim Heritage in Physics Project and through the material provided by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization FSTC), it was a surprise to know that Muslim Polymaths of the Golden age like Ibn Sina, Al-Razi, Ibn Rushd, Al-Baghdadi, and Al-Biruni and many others had their contributions in Physics, their thoughts were highly respected and strongly influenced Medieval European Scientists of the Late Medieval era, but that was hardly mentioned nor acknowledged in any Textbook. The FSTC Lecture Pack was very useful and 55% could be incorporated into PHYS 112 Course material. This research paper focused on the experience of a two semesters’ implementation of the Muslim Heritage in Physics in PHYS 112 Course in the spring of 2014 and the fall 2014 semesters, the strengths and the challenges faced are also detailed. In spring 2014, analysis of the survey conducted showed that 83% of the students were satisfied with the project’s idea and 76% support enriching the Muslim Heritage in Physics. Assessment in fall 2014 focused on the knowledge acquired by the students, a related assignment and a quiz were given and results showed that 93% and 88% of the students got 90% or more respectively.

Algebra and Trigonometry Course

Authors:
Hussein, S.A, Brahimi, T., Mostafa, A., Salih, A., Begum, N.
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:
This article gives a short historical review of the development of Algebra and Trigonometry from ancient to early modern Europe to the students of Algebra and Trigonometry course. It emphasizes on the huge gaps in the history of inventions and inventors, which overlook the contributions of non-Europeans, Arabs, and Muslims in Algebra and Trigonometry. It is a part of the partnership between Effat University and Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC: http://www.fstc.org.uk/). Due to heavy course description and shortage of time, instructors were unable to prepare all the assignments as given in the FSTC Muslims Heritage Guide. However, main project was developed per each semester. In the first semester, the project was on the history of mathematicians during the golden age. In the second one, the project had three parts; Al-Khwarizmi’s solution of the quadratic equation, the derivation of trigonometric identity based on the Al-Kashi’s work, and writing a short paragraph on one of scientists’ contributions. Resources received from FSTC were not all used during the above projects, approximately, instructors got benefits of 67% only out of the 43 FSTC documents while 41% of the materials only are valuable to students. Instructors divided students into groups. Each group was asked to search and present the work on the assigned scientist or created pamphlets. Students and their instructors immediately gained interest after they got in touch with Muslim Heritage project. Some students became very proud of Arabs and Muslim’s contributions, enjoyed discovering Muslim scientists, and have been encouraged to work hard and participated in mathematics related activities, others were happy just for the 1% bonus for their work on the total course grade Student assessment was based on power point presentations or word documents. Instructors prepared a series of questions related to Muslims Heritage in Algebra and Trigonometry, but more work is needed for better student assessment tools. This study shows that 81% of Algebra and Trigonometry students supported enriching the university courses with material relevant to the Muslim contributions in science. Only 40% of the students have heard or knew about the contributions of Muslim scientists in high schools.

Islamic Innovative Heritage: Students' Perspective

Authors:
EMohamed Ghazy Shehata, Professor
Renad BaAbdallah
Architecture Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:

The interest on Islamic Innovative Heritage has not only been growing since the last few years but also, it has been recognized by local governments in different countries as well as by UNESCO*. More recently, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly proclaimed 2015 as the "International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL 2015)*" including the celebration of the work of the 10th century scientist Ibn Al-Haytham. In the same context and to raise students’ awareness of the Muslim scientific heritage, in particular during the golden ages of Muslim civilization Effat University and the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization (FSTC) formed a partnership to develop and disseminate teaching resources to enrich Effat curriculums. The objective of the present work is to investigate the attitude of students towards integrating Islamic Innovative Heritage, and its impact on students' knowledge and educational experience. Once the topic of our shared scientific golden heritage finds acceptance and interest of students; it can be successfully integrated on the curriculum. Throughout the investigations of students' reactions and involvement in Islamic heritage projects in mathematics, we found that students were able to deliver the message for easy-accessed audience, such as friends, family…etc.; which will carry on rising the awareness to the general public. On the question "Do you support enriching the university courses with material relevant to the Muslim contributions in science"? 82% of all the students said yes. Among the surveyed students engineering students showed positive trends with 81%, 83%, 86% in Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry respectively. The major conclusion drawn from this study showed that more than 80% of math students supported enriching the university courses. Out of personal interest I had the chance to present my research output to the FSTC members, university faculty and student life under the title of "The Truth behind Dark Ages". This inspired me to work on a booklet on the scientist of the golden age to meet students' needs.

The booklet sheds lights on forgotten marvelous scientists of the Muslim civilization, summarizing biographies of men and women who contributed rising the new modern industrial civilization but are unrecognized by a considerable number of students. The first version of the booklet will be presented in the conference for the first time.

Alongside of the integration of Islamic Innovative Heritage into curriculum being a large zone of interest for students, we believe it will as well be interesting for faculty.

AlJazri Suction Pump

Authors:
Reemaz Hetaimish
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Israa Al-Qassas
Architecture Department
Effat University
Jeddah, KSA

Abstract:

Many applications in real life require water being pumped. One such device that can pump water is AlJazri’s suction pump. From its name it uses the mechanism of suction to pump water for such applications.

The basic operation of Aljazari’s suction pump is using the hydraulic power to pump water into a pipeline system. The pump consists of two cylinders, each containing a piston. The two pistons are connected through a rod, which is pin-jointed to an oscillating arm pivoted at the base of the pump.

The pump is driven by a water wheel, which drives through a combination of gears. The combination of the two gears is designed in a way to rotate in perpendicular planes. The vertical gear rotates with the rotation of the water wheel and consequently causes the horizontal gear to rotate.

A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft. It is used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion, or vice-versa. The arm may be a bent portion of the shaft, or a separate arm or disk attached to it. Attached to the end of the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called a connecting rod. The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in a circular motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a linear sliding motion.

Our inspiration to carry on with this project was completing the work of our Islamic heritage and helping civilization progress and advance. Through various research and construction methods we were able to recreate AlJazri’s suction pump and demonstrate through a model its function and operation.