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Volume 1 Issue 1 P.P 01 - 15

A. Al-Roubaie and M. M. S. Almubarak ‘Localisation of knowledge in GCC countries:
The case of SMEs’, MEJELSD, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017​​​

Amer Al-Roubaie* and Muneer M. S. Almubarak

College of Business and Finance, Ahlia University, Bahrain


Localisation of knowledge is among the important challenges facing Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Knowledge is a key driver of modern economies impacting productivity, employment, wealth creation, poverty reduction and technology diffusion. Building capabilities for knowledge localisation entails appropriate business environments, effective institutions, skilled workforces and sound infrastructure. The role of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is critical in building capacity for knowledge localisation and fostering economic growth. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the contribution of SMEs to knowledge localisation in GCC countries.


This paper uses descriptive and analytical methods to examine the contribution of SMEs to knowledge creation in GCC countries. Data used in the paper are drawn from the existing literature on SMEs and from data published by national and international institutions.


Published literature provides a substantial amount of information about the role that SMEs plays in knowledge creation and productivity growth. Our findings also reveal the important contribution of these enterprises to knowledge creation and knowledge localisation in GCC countries.
Research limitations/implications: Accurate data about the share of SMEs in market activities remain inadequate in GCC countries. The public sector is still dominant in most of these countries, reflecting government control over the economy. Large family-owned conglomerates distort the competitive landscape, especially in GCC economies.


The originality of this paper lies with the discussion on knowledge localisation in GCC countries. It highlights the importance of the indigenous knowledge system in building capacity for development.


Knowledge Localisation; SMEs; Globalisation; Human Capital; Development; GCC Countries; Innovation; Entrepreneurship


Reference to this paper should be made as follows: A. Al-Roubaie and M. M. S. Almubarak (2017) 'Localisation of Knowledge in GCC Countries: The Case of SMEs', Middle East Journal of Entreprenuership, Leadership and Sustainable Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.01-15.

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